In the early 19th century, rubber was a promising material that could be used for a variety of purposes, including making waterproof clothing, shoes, and hoses. However, it had one major drawback – it was extremely susceptible to changes in temperature, which caused it to either become too soft or too hard. This made it difficult to work with and made products made from rubber unreliable and prone to failure.
It wasn't until Charles Goodyear's discovery of vulcanization that rubber became a versatile and reliable material. In 1839, Goodyear discovered that heating rubber with sulfur transformed it into a material that was strong, durable, and resistant to temperature changes. He called this process "vulcanization" after Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
Goodyear's discovery was a result of years of experimentation with rubber. He had been trying to find a way to make rubber more durable and resistant to heat and had tried numerous methods with little success. One day, while working with rubber and sulfur over an open flame, he accidentally dropped the mixture onto a hot stove. To his surprise, the rubber became hardened and more durable than ever before.
Goodyear spent the next several years perfecting the vulcanization process. He experimented with several types and amounts of sulfur and developed a process for heating the rubber to the optimal temperature without burning it. He also developed a machine to help him apply pressure to the rubber during the vulcanization process.
Thanks to Goodyear's discovery, rubber became a highly sought-after material. It was used to make a wide range of products, including tires, hoses, gaskets, and even clothing. The discovery of vulcanization also led to the creation of the modern rubber industry, which remains an important part of the global economy today.
Goodyear never patented his discovery, and as a result, he never became wealthy from his invention. However, his discovery of vulcanization remains one of the most important technological advances of the 19th century, and his legacy lives on in the countless products made from rubber that we use every day.